Oxidant and acid aerosol exposure in healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Part II: Effects of sequential sulfuric acid and ozone exposures on the pulmonary function of healthy subjects and subjects with asthma.

M. J. Utell, M. W. Frampton, P. E. Morrow, C. Cox, P. C. Levy, D. M. Speers, F. R. Gibb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

These studies were undertaken to evaluate pulmonary responses of humans sequentially exposed to acidic aerosols and ozone at levels that could reasonably be encountered in actual environmental exposures. Subjects first were exposed to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol to sensitize the airways to ozone. The exposure protocols were designed to provide more quantitative information about the threshold levels of ozone that produce adverse biological effects and to provide exposure-response data on ozone. Two groups of 30 nonsmoking volunteers of both sexes, between the ages of 18 and 45 years, were recruited. The healthy study population comprised 16 men and 14 women with an average age of 28 years and no airway hyperreactivity. The second group comprised 10 men and 20 women comparable in age to the control group, but with allergic asthma and positive skin tests. The study examined an exposure-response relationship using three levels of ozone ranging from below the current standard to one and one-half times the ambient air quality standard (0.08, 0.12, and 0.18 ppm* [parts per million]) with preexposure 24 hours earlier to H2SO4 (100 micrograms/m3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (control) aerosol in a 45-m3 environmental chamber. The study used an incomplete block design in which each subject was exposed to four of the six paired experimental atmospheres. Both the selection of paired exposures and the order in which they were presented were randomized. The exposure protocol required nine days: Day 1, training and baseline preexposure measurements; Day 2, the first of the three-hour particle (H2SO4 or NaCl) exposures; Day 3 (24 hours after Day 2), ozone exposure at 0.08, 0.12, or 0.18 ppm for three hours; Day 4 (two to four weeks later), exposure to the same ozone concentration as on Day 4. After at least another two weeks, Days 6, 7, 8, and 9 repeated Days 2, 3, 4, and 5 using a second ozone concentration. All three-hour exposures included several predetermined periods of exercise and pulmonary function measurements. To examine for delayed effects, pulmonary function tests were measured two and four hours after exposure on the ozone days. Data were analyzed over the time course of exposure and by exposure level of ozone at each time point to reveal dose-response relationships more closely. The main findings of the study are as follows. No significant symptomatic or physiologic effects of exposure to either aerosol or ozone on lung function were found for the healthy group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-93, discussion 95-93112
JournalResearch report (Health Effects Institute)
Issue number70
StatePublished - Nov 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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