Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination at the quarter centennial: Implications for the multiple births epidemic

Howard D. McClamrock, Howard W. Jones, Eli Y. Adashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (OS/IUI), a mainstay of current infertility therapy and a common antecedent to IVF, is a significant driver of the multiple births epidemic. Redress of this challenge, now marking its quarter centennial, will require a rethinking of current practice patterns. Herein we explore prospects for prevention, mitigation, and eventual resolution. We conclude that the multiple births attributable to OS/IUI may not be entirely preventable but that the outlook for their mitigation is promising, if in need of solidification. Specifically, we observe that low-dose (≤75 IU) gondotropin, clomiphene, and especially off-label letrozole regimens outperform high-dose (≥150 IU) gonadotropin counterparts in the gestational plurality category while maintaining comparable per-cycle pregnancy rates. Accordingly we recommend that, subject to appropriate exceptions, high-dose gonadotropin regimens be used sparingly and that whenever possible they be replaced with emerging alternatives. Finally, we posit that OS/IUI is not likely to be superseded by IVF absent further commoditization and thus greater affordability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)802-809
Number of pages8
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012



  • Infertility
  • intrauterine insemination
  • multiple births
  • ovarian stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

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