Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

Ryan David Kennedy, Ilan Behm, Lorraine Craig, Mary E. Thompson, Geoffrey T. Fong, Romain Guignard, Francois Beck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6 of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9 at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9 to 59.0. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4 to 24.7, and 30.4 to 40.8 respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5), non-smokers (89.4) and quitters (74.0) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-34
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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