Outcomes research in pediatric surgery part 2: How to structure a research question

David C. Chang, Daniel S. Rhee, Dominic Papandria, Gudrun Aspelund, Robert A. Cowles, Eunice Y. Huang, Catherine Chen, William Middlesworth, Marjorie J. Arca, Fizan Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Innovative treatments and procedures are essential to the advancement of surgery. Outcomes research provides the mechanism to analyze these new treatments as they enter clinical practice and evaluate them against established therapies. Information gained through this methodology is essential because new techniques and innovations often gain rapid acceptance before clinical trials can be conducted to assess them. Increasing national emphasis is placed on comparative effectiveness as health care costs rise. Surgeons must take the lead in surgical outcomes and comparative effectiveness research, with the goal of identifying the most efficient and effective treatment for our patients. The authors show how to structure and design a research project involving pediatric surgical outcomes. The model consists of the following 3 phases: (1) study design, (2) data preparation, and (3) data analysis. The model we present provides the reader with a basic format and research structure to serve as a guide to performing high-quality surgical outcomes research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Comparative effectiveness research
  • Outcomes research
  • Pediatric surgery
  • Study design
  • Surgical outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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