Objective: Between 1985 and 1989, the surgical management of neonates with complete transposition (TGA) underwent a transition from atrial to arterial repair. We sought to examine the intermediate outcomes and their associated risk factors in neonates repaired during the era of transition. Patients and methods: Twenty-four institutions entered 829 neonates age less than 15 days in a prospective study. Diagnosis was simple TGA (n=631), TGA with ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n=167), TGA with VSD and pulmonary stenosis (TGA/VSD/PS) (n=30), or TGA with PS (n=1). Repair was by arterial switch (n=516), atrial repair (Senning=175, Mustard=110) or Rastelli (n=28). Time-related events were analysed by parametric hazard function modeling and incremental risk factors for mortality, re-intervention, and late functional assessment were sought. Results: Survival estimates at 6 months, 5, 10, and 15 years are 85, 83, 83, and 81%, respectively. The hazard function for death after repair has two phases: an early rapidly declining phase and an ongoing constant one. Constant phase mortality is less likely after the arterial switch operation and in children with simple TGA. During follow up, at least one re-intervention was required in 167 children (pacemaker, n=35; percutaneous intervention, n=32; baffle re-intervention, n=27; re-operation, n=125). Freedom from re-intervention at 6 months, 5, 10 and 15 years is 93, 82, 77, and 76%, respectively. Of survivors, 87% have been followed up to the last 3 years, including an assessment of functional ability of 562 children (83%). Functional class 15 years after repair is class I in 76%, II in 22%, III in 2%. The proportion in functional class I decreased over time. Psychosocial deficits, especially learning disorders are prevalent. Conclusions: Survival 15 years after TGA repair is good with most children functioning well, and results are best after an arterial switch operation. There is an ongoing risk of death that is less after the arterial switch operation. With the exception of Rastelli patients, the likelihood of survivors needing re-intervention after 5 years is low. There is need for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes.
- Functional assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine