Outcomes and cost analysis of 3 operational models for rapid HIV testing services in an academic inner-city emergency department

Yu Hsiang Hsieh, Julianna J. Jung, Judy B. Shahan, Harold A. Pollack, Heather S. Hairston, Daniel Moring-Parris, G. D. Kelen, Richard E. Rothman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: We compare the outcomes and costs of alternative staffing models for an emergency department (ED) rapid HIV testing program. Methods: A rapid oral-fluid HIV testing program was instituted in an inner-city ED in 2005. Three staffing models were compared during 24.5 months: indigenous medical staff only, exogenous staff only, or exogenous staff plus medical staff (hybrid). Personnel obtained written consent and provided brief pretest counseling, obtained kits, collected specimens, returned specimens to the ED satellite laboratory, and performed posttest counseling and referral to care. Cost analysis was performed to estimate cost per patient tested and cost per patient linked to care. Results: Overall, 44 of 2,958 (1.5%) patients tested received confirmed positive results and 30 (68%) were linked to care. The exogenous staff only model yielded the highest number tested per month (587), and indigenous medical staff only yielded the lowest (57). Significantly higher positivity rates were found in both indigenous medical staff only (2.2%) and hybrid (2.0%) models versus the exogenous staff only model (0.6%) (prevalence rate ratio: 3.7 [95% confidence interval {CI}1.5 to 9.3] versus 3.4 [95% CI 1.5 to 7.8], respectively). All patients with confirmed positive results were linked to care in the indigenous medical staff only model but only approximately 60% were linked to care in the 2 other models (linked to care rate ratio versus exogenous staff only: 1.8 [95% CI 1.1 to 4.4]; versus hybrid: 1.7 [95% CI 1.2 to 2.5]). The indigenous medical staff only model had the highest cost ($109) per patient tested, followed by the hybrid ($87) and the exogenous staff only ($39). However, the indigenous medical staff only model had the lowest cost ($4,937) per patient linked to care, followed by the hybrid ($7,213) and exogenous staff only ($11,454). Conclusion: The exogenous staff only model tested the most patients at the least cost per patient tested. The indigenous medical staff only model identified the fewest patients with unrecognized HIV infection and had the highest cost per patient tested but the lowest cost per patient linked to care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S133-S139
JournalAnnals of emergency medicine
Volume58
Issue number1 SUPPL.
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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