Outcomes after the Norwood operation in neonates with critical aortic stenosis or aortic valve atresia

David A. Ashburn, Brian W. McCrindle, Christo I. Tchervenkov, Marshall L. Jacobs, Gary K. Lofland, Edward L. Bove, Thomas L. Spray, William G. Williams, Eugene H. Blackstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the demographic, anatomic, institutional, and surgical risk factors associated with outcomes after the Norwood operation. Methods: A total of 710 of 985 neonates with critical aortic stenosis or atresia enrolled in a prospective 29-institution study between 1994 and 2000 underwent the Norwood operation. Admission echocardiograms were independently reviewed for 64% of neonates. Competing risks analyses were constructed for outcomes after Norwood operation and after cavopulmonary shunt. Incremental risk factors for outcome events were sought. Results: Overall survivals after the Norwood operation were 72%, 60%, and 54% at 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. According to competing risks analysis, 97% of neonates reached a subsequent transition state by 18 months after Norwood operation, consisting of death (37%), cavopulmonary shunt (58%), or other state (2%, cardiac transplantation, biventricular repair, or Fontan operation). Risk factors for death occurring before subsequent transition included patient-specific variables (lower birth weight, smaller ascending aorta, older age at Norwood operation), institutional variables (institutions enrolling ≤10 neonates, two institutions enrolling ≥40 neonates), and procedural variables (shunt originating from aorta, longer circulatory arrest time, and management of the ascending aorta). Of neonates undergoing cavopulmonary shunt, 91% had reached a subsequent transition state by 6 years after cavopulmonary shunt, consisting of Fontan operation (79%), death (9%), or cardiac transplantation (3%). Risk factors for death occurring before subsequent transition included younger age at cavopulmonary shunt and need for right atrioventricular valve repair. Conclusions: Competing risks analysis defines the prevalence of the various outcomes after Norwood operation and predicts improved outcomes with successful modification of controllable risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1070-1082
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume125
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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