O2/CO2: Biological Detection to Homeostatic Control

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Oxygen (O2) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are the two gases to be detected and controlled. Of interest might be a query of the evolutionary origin of each. From the cooling of the Big Bang (~13.8 Billion Years Ago [BYA]) came a quark-gluon plasma from which protons and neutrons emerged, producing H, He, Li. As H and He collapsed into the first stars at ~13.3 BYA carbon and monatomic oxygen were generated. Some 3 billion years ago greater amounts of diatomic oxygen (O2) were provided by earth’s photosynthesizing bacteria until earth’s atmosphere had sufficient amounts to sustain the life processes of multicellular animals, and finally higher vertebrates. Origin of CO2 is somewhat unclear, though it probably came from the erupting early volcanoes. Photosynthesis produced sugars with O2 a waste product. Animal life took sugars and O2 needed for life. Clearly, animal detection and control of each was critical. Many chapters involving great heroes describe phases involved in detecting each, both in the CNS and in peripheral detectors. The carotid body (CB) has played a crucial role in the detection of each. What reflex responses the stimulated CB generates, and the mechanisms as to how it does so have been a fascinating story over the last 1.5 centuries, but principally over the last 50 years. Explorations to detect these gases have proceeded from the organismal/system/ organ levels down to the sub-cell and genetic levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Pages1-12
Number of pages12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Volume1071
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019

Keywords

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Chemoreceptors
  • Great oxygen event
  • Oxygen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Fitzgerald, R. S. (2018). O2/CO2: Biological Detection to Homeostatic Control. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (pp. 1-12). (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Vol. 1071). Springer New York LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91137-3_1