Purpose: We describe the occurrence of maxillary and orbital osteogenic sarcoma in a child after treatment of contralateral orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with external beam radiation and chemotherapy. Design: Interventional case report. Intervention: Treatment of a maxillary and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and local radiation. Main Outcome Measures: Occurrence and histology of secondary malignancy after orbital radiation. Results: An eleven year-old male presented for evaluation of left facial swelling, occurring ten years after successful treatment of a right orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chemotherapy and 5040 cGY of external beam radiation. Computerized tomography demonstrated a mass involving the left maxillary sinus and orbital floor. Biopsy demonstrated osteogenic sarcoma. Despite attempted total excision with radical maxillectomy, resection margins were found to have microscopic extension of the tumor. Postoperatively he was treated with systemic chemotherapy and local radiation. Eight months postoperatively he remains alive despite local progression. Conclusions: Osteogenic sarcoma can occur as a secondary malignancy years after the successful treatment of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with external beam radiation and chemotherapy. After orbital radiation, subjects should undergo routine lifelong examinations.
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