Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common of the inherited connective tissue disorders that primarily affect bone. However, it is a systemic disorder, as evidenced by the occurrence of ocular complications, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing loss, joint laxity, restrictive pulmonary disease, and short stature. The OI classification initially included four phenotypes (I-IV) involving COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations. Three new phenotypes have been added, of which one, type VII, is the result of mutations of the cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) gene. Investigation of recessive forms of OI particularly reported among South African blacks have revealed mutations involving both the CRTAP gene and the leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 (LEPRE1) gene, each involved in collagen proline-3 hydroxylation. Issues related to the treatment of OI with bisphosphonates involve patient selection, evaluation of the results of treatment, and the duration of treatment. Also, questions exist regarding the difference in treatment response between children and adults with OI. Other treatment options, such as recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34), Rank ligand inhibitors, and stem cell technology, are being evaluated or are of future investigative interest.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism