The present study investigated whether memory for a room-sized spatial layout learned through auditory localization of sounds exhibits orientation dependence similar to that observed for spatial memory acquired from stationary viewing of the environment. Participants learned spatial layouts by viewing objects or localizing sounds and then performed judgments of relative direction among remembered locations. The results showed that direction judgments following auditory learning were performed most accurately at a particular orientation in the same way as were those following visual learning, indicating that auditorily encoded spatial memory is orientation dependent. In combination with previous findings that spatial memories derived from haptic and proprioceptive experiences are also orientation dependent, the present finding suggests that orientation dependence is a general functional property of human spatial memory independent of learning modality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)