Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

Anthony L. Gotter, Mark S. Forman, Charles M. Harrell, Joanne Stevens, Vladimir Svetnik, Ka Lai Yee, Xiaodong Li, Anthony J. Roecker, Steven V. Fox, Pamela L. Tannenbaum, Susan L. Garson, Inge De Lepeleire, Nicole Calder, Laura Rosen, Arie Struyk, Paul J. Coleman, W. Joseph Herring, John J. Renger, Christopher J. Winrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2 R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2 R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number27147
JournalScientific Reports
StatePublished - Jun 3 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this