Reinforcing and physical dependence-producing effects of oral diazepam and triazolam (0.01-1.28 mg/ml) were studied in four non-water-deprived baboons in daily 2-3-h sessions. Drinking initially was food-induced, but subsequently it was maintained for>year without the inducing procedures; drug intake>10 mg/kg per session was attained. Triazolam and diazepam reinforcement (compared to vehicle) was concluded for only one baboon for each drug under a single-spout procedure and for two baboons for each drug under a two-spout procedure. However, all baboons showed ethanol reinforcement under a two-spout procedure. When a lever-pressing requirement was imposed for each drink (one-spout procedure), ethanol maintained requirements of 128 or 256 responses/drink, and volume of ethanol consumed was greater than vehicle. Neither benzodiazepine maintained lever pressing better than vehicle at any response requirement and drinking was suppressed by requirements of 1-32. Physical dependence to triazolam and diazepam developed after approximately 1 month of daily ingestion, evidenced by a precipitated withdrawal syndrome after injection of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil. A mild spontaneous withdrawal syndrome occurred after substitution of vehicle for triazolam or diazepam. These data indicate a clear dissociation between the reinforcing and physical dependence-producing effects of triazolam and diazepam.
- Benzodiazepine physical dependence
- Oral self-administration
ASJC Scopus subject areas