Oral-only linezolid-rifampin is highly effective compared with other antibiotics for periprosthetic joint infection: Study of a mouse model

John M. Thompson, Vikram Saini, Alyssa G. Ashbaugh, Robert J. Miller, Alvaro Ordonez Suarez, Roger V. Ortines, Yu Wang, Robert Steven Sterling, Sanjay Jain, Lloyd S Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. Methods: Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI. Bacterial burden was assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging and ex vivo counting of colony-forming units (CFUs), and reactive bone changes were evaluated with radiographs and micro-computed tomography (mCT) imaging. Results: Oral-only linezolid-rifampin and all intravenous antibiotic-rifampin combinations resulted in no recoverable bacteria and minimized reactive bone changes. Although oral linezolid was the most effective monotherapy, all oral and intravenous antibiotic monotherapies failed to clear infection or prevent reactive bone changes. Conclusions: Combination antibiotic-rifampin regimens, including oral-only linezolid-rifampin and the newer ceftarolinerifampin combinations, were highly effective and more efficacious than monotherapies when used against a preclinical MRSA PJI. Clinical Relevance: This study provides important preclinical evidence to better optimize future antibiotic therapy against PJIs. In particular, the oral-only linezolid-rifampin option might reduce venous access complications and healthcare costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)656-665
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume
Volume99
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Medicine(all)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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