Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use

Karl B. Scheidweiler, Gina F. Marrone, Diaa M. Shakleya, Edward G. Singleton, Stephen J. Heishman, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Oral fluid collection is noninvasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large intersubject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. MATERIALS AND Methods: Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from nontreatment-seeking light (1-10 CPD) and heavy smokers (greater than 10 CPD) and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Comparison of 1, 3, and 10 ng/mL oral fluid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry cutoffs demonstrated that 10-ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine, and norcotinine identifying 98%, 97%, 88%, and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had greater than 10 ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had greater than 10 ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine, or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios were correlated with time of last smoking (r =-0.53,-0.23, and-0.51; P <0.05) and CPD (r = 0.35, 0.26, and 0.33; P <0.01), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: OH-cotinine performed slightly better than cotinine for distinguishing smokers from nonsmokers and should be considered as an additional oral fluid smoking indicator. Further research is required to determine if oral fluid norcotinine is a marker for distinguishing light and heavy smokers. Moderate correlations suggest nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in "spot samples" collected during nicotine cessation treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-618
Number of pages10
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Volume33
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Cotinine
Nicotine
Smoking
Tobacco Products
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Light
Withholding Treatment
Research Ethics Committees
Informed Consent

Keywords

  • liquid chromatography
  • mass spectrometry
  • metabolite
  • nicotine
  • oral fluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Scheidweiler, K. B., Marrone, G. F., Shakleya, D. M., Singleton, E. G., Heishman, S. J., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 33(5), 609-618. https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e318228ba39

Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use. / Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

In: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Vol. 33, No. 5, 10.2011, p. 609-618.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Scheidweiler, KB, Marrone, GF, Shakleya, DM, Singleton, EG, Heishman, SJ & Huestis, MA 2011, 'Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use', Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 609-618. https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e318228ba39
Scheidweiler KB, Marrone GF, Shakleya DM, Singleton EG, Heishman SJ, Huestis MA. Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 2011 Oct;33(5):609-618. https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e318228ba39
Scheidweiler, Karl B. ; Marrone, Gina F. ; Shakleya, Diaa M. ; Singleton, Edward G. ; Heishman, Stephen J. ; Huestis, Marilyn A. / Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use. In: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 2011 ; Vol. 33, No. 5. pp. 609-618.
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abstract = "Introduction: Oral fluid collection is noninvasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large intersubject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. MATERIALS AND Methods: Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from nontreatment-seeking light (1-10 CPD) and heavy smokers (greater than 10 CPD) and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Comparison of 1, 3, and 10 ng/mL oral fluid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry cutoffs demonstrated that 10-ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine, and norcotinine identifying 98{\%}, 97{\%}, 88{\%}, and 15{\%} of self-reported smokers; 1{\%} nonsmokers had greater than 10 ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had greater than 10 ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine, or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios were correlated with time of last smoking (r =-0.53,-0.23, and-0.51; P <0.05) and CPD (r = 0.35, 0.26, and 0.33; P <0.01), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: OH-cotinine performed slightly better than cotinine for distinguishing smokers from nonsmokers and should be considered as an additional oral fluid smoking indicator. Further research is required to determine if oral fluid norcotinine is a marker for distinguishing light and heavy smokers. Moderate correlations suggest nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in {"}spot samples{"} collected during nicotine cessation treatment.",
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AU - Scheidweiler, Karl B.

AU - Marrone, Gina F.

AU - Shakleya, Diaa M.

AU - Singleton, Edward G.

AU - Heishman, Stephen J.

AU - Huestis, Marilyn A.

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N2 - Introduction: Oral fluid collection is noninvasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large intersubject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. MATERIALS AND Methods: Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from nontreatment-seeking light (1-10 CPD) and heavy smokers (greater than 10 CPD) and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Comparison of 1, 3, and 10 ng/mL oral fluid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry cutoffs demonstrated that 10-ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine, and norcotinine identifying 98%, 97%, 88%, and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had greater than 10 ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had greater than 10 ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine, or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios were correlated with time of last smoking (r =-0.53,-0.23, and-0.51; P <0.05) and CPD (r = 0.35, 0.26, and 0.33; P <0.01), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: OH-cotinine performed slightly better than cotinine for distinguishing smokers from nonsmokers and should be considered as an additional oral fluid smoking indicator. Further research is required to determine if oral fluid norcotinine is a marker for distinguishing light and heavy smokers. Moderate correlations suggest nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in "spot samples" collected during nicotine cessation treatment.

AB - Introduction: Oral fluid collection is noninvasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large intersubject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. MATERIALS AND Methods: Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from nontreatment-seeking light (1-10 CPD) and heavy smokers (greater than 10 CPD) and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Comparison of 1, 3, and 10 ng/mL oral fluid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry cutoffs demonstrated that 10-ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine, and norcotinine identifying 98%, 97%, 88%, and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had greater than 10 ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had greater than 10 ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine, or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios were correlated with time of last smoking (r =-0.53,-0.23, and-0.51; P <0.05) and CPD (r = 0.35, 0.26, and 0.33; P <0.01), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: OH-cotinine performed slightly better than cotinine for distinguishing smokers from nonsmokers and should be considered as an additional oral fluid smoking indicator. Further research is required to determine if oral fluid norcotinine is a marker for distinguishing light and heavy smokers. Moderate correlations suggest nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in "spot samples" collected during nicotine cessation treatment.

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KW - mass spectrometry

KW - metabolite

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