Oral antibiotic use and chronic disease: long-term health impact beyond antimicrobial resistance and Clostridioides difficile

Jessica Queen, Jiajia Zhang, Cynthia L. Sears

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

Abstract

We recently reported an increased colon cancer risk associated with oral antibiotic use in a large United Kingdom population. This association between antibiotic exposure and cancer risk adds to a growing body of evidence that antibiotic use has unintended off-target long-term health consequences. This addendum highlights major studies linking antibiotic use and chronic disease in pediatric and adult populations. Microbiota dysbiosis is the key proposed mechanism underlying antibiotic:disease associations, resulting in alterations in gene expression, epigenetic modification, colonization by pathogenic bacteria, instigation of biofilms, and immune regulation and inflammation. These adverse outcomes of antibiotic exposure underscore the need for diagnostic and antibiotic stewardship, as well as the urgency for further development of non-antibiotic therapies for bacterial infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1092-1103
Number of pages12
JournalGut Microbes
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 3 2020

Keywords

  • Colorectal cancer
  • antibiotic stewardship
  • antibiotics
  • cancer risk
  • carcinogenesis
  • microbiota dysbiosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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