Optimizing the smile with gracilis free muscle transfer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Restoring smile to the paralyzed face requires analysis of the elements and biomechanics behind a natural smile. A Duchenne-type smile with maximal dental display can be recreated with a tailored gracilis free flap technique that restores multi-vector excursion of the lip simulating native lip elevators. Applying the principles of muscle tendon unit transfers helps to maximize muscle excursion with appropriate force along ideal vectors. Outcome measures that reflect the elements of a normal smile are helpful in objectively assessing and modifying techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-40
Number of pages5
JournalOperative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Facial reanimation
  • Gracilis
  • Multi-vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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