Optimization of the irradiation power in chemical exchange dependent saturation transfer experiments

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120 Scopus citations


In chemical exchange dependent saturation transfer imaging experiments, exchangeable solute protons are saturated and the transfer of saturation to water is subsequently detected. When the applied irradiation power is comparable to the resonance frequency difference between the water protons and saturated solute protons, the proton transfer (PT) efficiency is reduced due to concomitant direct saturation effects. In this study, the PT process is modeled using a two-pool system. An empirical general proton transfer ratio (PTR) equation for arbitrary RF irradiation power is derived, and its optimal power to maximize the PTR is analyzed. The results are confirmed experimentally on 4.7 T using a poly-l-lysine solution. The theory provides a useful tool for optimizing the irradiation power of the PT sequences in the presence of direct saturation effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-200
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • APT
  • CEST
  • Chemical exchange
  • Direct saturation
  • MT
  • Spillover effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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