Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging

Chumin Zhao, Magdalena Herbst, Sebastian Vogt, Ludwig Ritschl, Steffen Kappler, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, Wojciech Zbijewski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Purpose: We investigate cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging protocols and scan orbits for 3D cervical spine imaging on a twin-robotic x-ray imaging system (Multitom Rax). Tilted circular scan orbits are studied to assess potential benefits in visualization of lower cervical vertebrae, in particular in low-dose imaging scenarios. Methods: The Multitom Rax system enables flexible scan orbit design by using two robotic arms to independently move the x-ray source and detector. We investigated horizontal and tilted circular scan orbits (up to 45° tilt) for 3D imaging of the cervical spine. The studies were performed using an advanced CBCT simulation framework involving GPU accelerated x-ray scatter estimation and accurate modeling of x-ray source, detector and noise. For each orbit, the x-ray scatter and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) were evaluated; cervical spine image quality was characterized by analyzing the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each vertebrae. Performance evaluation was performed for a range of scan exposures (263 mAs/scan - 2.63 mAs/scan) and standard and dedicated low dose reconstruction protocols. Results: The tilted orbit reduces scatter and increases primary detector signal for lower cervical vertebrae because it avoids ray paths crossing through both shoulders. Orbit tilt angle of 35° was found to achieve a balanced performance in visualization of upper and lower cervical spine. Compared with a flat orbit, using the optimized 35° tilted orbit reduces lateral projection SPR at the C7 vertebra by <40%, and increases CNR by 220% for C6 and 76% for C7. Adequate visualization of the vertebrae with CNR <1 was achieved for scan exposures as low as 13.2 mAs / scan, corresponding to ∼3 mGy absorbed spine dose. Conclusion: Optimized tilted scan orbits are advantageous for CBCT imaging of the cervical spine. The simulation studies presented here indicate that CBCT image quality sufficient for evaluation of spine alignment and intervertebral joint spaces might be achievable at spine doses below 5 mGy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
EditorsSamuel Matej, Scott D. Metzler
PublisherSPIE
ISBN (Electronic)9781510628373
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Event15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fully3D 2019 - Philadelphia, United States
Duration: Jun 2 2019Jun 6 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume11072
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

Conference

Conference15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fully3D 2019
CountryUnited States
CityPhiladelphia
Period6/2/196/6/19

Fingerprint

spine
Spine
Cones
cones
Orbits
Cone
Orbit
Imaging
vertebrae
orbits
Imaging techniques
optimization
Optimization
Scatter
Dose
X rays
dosage
Visualization
x ray sources
Detector

Keywords

  • Cervical spine
  • Cone-beam CT
  • Dose reduction
  • Robotic x-ray systems
  • Scan orbit optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Zhao, C., Herbst, M., Vogt, S., Ritschl, L., Kappler, S., Siewerdsen, J. H., & Zbijewski, W. (2019). Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging. In S. Matej, & S. D. Metzler (Eds.), 15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine [110720U] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 11072). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2534754

Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging. / Zhao, Chumin; Herbst, Magdalena; Vogt, Sebastian; Ritschl, Ludwig; Kappler, Steffen; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Zbijewski, Wojciech.

15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. ed. / Samuel Matej; Scott D. Metzler. SPIE, 2019. 110720U (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 11072).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zhao, C, Herbst, M, Vogt, S, Ritschl, L, Kappler, S, Siewerdsen, JH & Zbijewski, W 2019, Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging. in S Matej & SD Metzler (eds), 15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine., 110720U, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 11072, SPIE, 15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fully3D 2019, Philadelphia, United States, 6/2/19. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2534754
Zhao C, Herbst M, Vogt S, Ritschl L, Kappler S, Siewerdsen JH et al. Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging. In Matej S, Metzler SD, editors, 15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. SPIE. 2019. 110720U. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2534754
Zhao, Chumin ; Herbst, Magdalena ; Vogt, Sebastian ; Ritschl, Ludwig ; Kappler, Steffen ; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H. ; Zbijewski, Wojciech. / Optimization of cone-beam CT scan orbits for cervical spine imaging. 15th International Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. editor / Samuel Matej ; Scott D. Metzler. SPIE, 2019. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
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abstract = "Purpose: We investigate cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging protocols and scan orbits for 3D cervical spine imaging on a twin-robotic x-ray imaging system (Multitom Rax). Tilted circular scan orbits are studied to assess potential benefits in visualization of lower cervical vertebrae, in particular in low-dose imaging scenarios. Methods: The Multitom Rax system enables flexible scan orbit design by using two robotic arms to independently move the x-ray source and detector. We investigated horizontal and tilted circular scan orbits (up to 45° tilt) for 3D imaging of the cervical spine. The studies were performed using an advanced CBCT simulation framework involving GPU accelerated x-ray scatter estimation and accurate modeling of x-ray source, detector and noise. For each orbit, the x-ray scatter and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) were evaluated; cervical spine image quality was characterized by analyzing the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each vertebrae. Performance evaluation was performed for a range of scan exposures (263 mAs/scan - 2.63 mAs/scan) and standard and dedicated low dose reconstruction protocols. Results: The tilted orbit reduces scatter and increases primary detector signal for lower cervical vertebrae because it avoids ray paths crossing through both shoulders. Orbit tilt angle of 35° was found to achieve a balanced performance in visualization of upper and lower cervical spine. Compared with a flat orbit, using the optimized 35° tilted orbit reduces lateral projection SPR at the C7 vertebra by <40{\%}, and increases CNR by 220{\%} for C6 and 76{\%} for C7. Adequate visualization of the vertebrae with CNR <1 was achieved for scan exposures as low as 13.2 mAs / scan, corresponding to ∼3 mGy absorbed spine dose. Conclusion: Optimized tilted scan orbits are advantageous for CBCT imaging of the cervical spine. The simulation studies presented here indicate that CBCT image quality sufficient for evaluation of spine alignment and intervertebral joint spaces might be achievable at spine doses below 5 mGy.",
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