Optical issues in measuring strabismus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Potential errors and complications during examination and treatment of strabismic patients can be reduced by recognition of certain optical issues. This articles reviews basic as well as guiding principles of prism optics and optics of the eye to equip the reader with the necessary know-how to avoid pitfalls that are commonly encountered when using prisms to measure ocular deviations (e.g., during cover testing), and when observing the corneal light reflex to estimate ocular deviations (e.g., during Hirschberg or Krimsky testing in patients who do not allow for cover testing using prisms).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-270
Number of pages6
JournalMiddle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Angle kappa
  • Prentice position
  • Prentice's rule
  • angle lambda
  • frontal plane position
  • minimum deviation position
  • prism diopters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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