The optical fibers are making new inroads into the biomedical applications. Absorption spectroscopy can be performed in situ. In situ studies are conducted for several applications-glucose and other blood analyte analysis, and NO and CO2 measurements in breath and molecular tissue mapping. Quick and accurate measurements of blood analytes without sample preparation may enable a better treatment. Gas analysis of human breath may provide valuable biomedical and clinical information. The detection of gas traces such as ammonia and NO may be used for noninvasive medical diagnosis and monitoring the success of a medical treatment. Near infrared (NIR) and mid-IR (MIDIR) spectroscopy is a reliable method for obtaining the fingerprint of solids, liquids, and gases. It can detect small amounts of materials and quantify the amount of material inside a given sample. One of the methods of NIR and MIDIR spectroscopy is evanescent wave spectroscopy (EWS), which is also known as attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.
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