The eye is intricately integrated with the functions of the body. Ocular changes may precede or run concurrently with various systemic conditions and often represent important prognostic indicators of disease progression. In addition to a thorough diagnostic evaluation and treatment of underlying processes, individuals with systemic diseases and concurrent ocular changes may need comprehensive ophthalmic examination to reduce the risk of visual impairment and morbidity. In this review the authors highlight the clinically relevant ocular signs that occur parallel with systemic conditions. In particular, the study focuses on the varied clinical presentations that can lead to rapid diagnosis to improve management of eye disorders that accompany systemic diseases.
- Congestive heart failure
- Nerve palsy
- Ocular complications of systemic disease
- Renal failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas