HIV retinopathy, a noninfectious microangiopathy, is the most common ocular manifestation of HIV infection. Opportunistic infections, neoplasms, neuro-ophthalmic lesions, and drug-induced lesions may also cause ocular problems. Opportunistic ocular infections, particularly CMV retinitis, are a major cause of morbidity in patients with AIDS. Because of the underlying chronic and progressive immune dysfunction, the ocular symptoms, signs, clinical course, and treatment are often atypical and severe, requiring protracted medical therapy.
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