Sandra Twardosz, Michael F. Cataldo, Todd R. Risley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Group care settings for dependent people must be organized to facilitate delivery of responsive care and to prevent inadvertant neglect or deliberate abuse. Accordingly, in an infant and a toddler day‐care center, an open environment was examined as a means to increase the visibility of children to staff and of staff‐child interactions to the supervisor, and to investigate potential adverse effects of the open environment on infants' and toddlers' activities. These studies demonstrated that: (1) an open environment markedly decreased the amount of time a child could not be seen by any adult and the amount of time staff members' activities were not visible to the supervisor, and markedly reduced the effort required to supervise those who were not immediately visible; (2) an open environment did not adversely affect the sleep of either infants or toddlers; and (3) an open environment is as conducive to small group pre‐academic activities with toddlers as is a separate room. These studies convinced us that infant and toddler day care can and should be accomplished in an open environment. 1974 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)529-546
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of applied behavior analysis
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1974
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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