Older Age Predicts Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Grade Reclassification to Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Men on Active Surveillance

Sasha C. Druskin, Mufaddal Mamawala, Jeffrey J. Tosoian, Jonathan Ira Epstein, Christian Pavlovich, H Ballentine Carter, Bruce Trock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE: Age at prostate cancer diagnosis has been positively associated with prostate cancer specific mortality and in men on active surveillance with a higher risk of biopsy grade reclassification to Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater (Grade Group 2 or greater). However, to our knowledge the association between age and biopsy grade reclassification to an aggressive phenotype (Gleason score 4 + 3 or greater [Grade Group 3 or greater]) has not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2016 we followed 1,625 men 41 to 81 years old with NCCN® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) very low (68%) or low (32%) risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. We determined the rate of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater. Competing risk analysis was applied to evaluate the association between age at enrollment and the risk of biopsy grade reclassification. Additionally, in men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification we assessed the rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (ie radical prostatectomy Grade Group greater than biopsy Grade Group). RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater was 4%, 7% and 14% in men younger than 60, 60 to 69 and 70 years old or older, respectively (p <0.001). On univariate analysis older age was associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.43, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis adjusting for year of diagnosis, race, prostate specific antigen density and cancer volume at diagnosis older age remained associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.19, p <0.001). In men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification those who were older had a higher rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In men on active surveillance older age at diagnosis was positively associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater and radical prostatectomy grade reclassification. These observations imply that for many older men, active surveillance as opposed to watchful waiting remains a more appropriate management strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-104
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of Urology
Volume201
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Prostatectomy
Prostatic Neoplasms
Biopsy
Neoplasm Grading
Watchful Waiting
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Neoplasms
Phenotype
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Older Age Predicts Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Grade Reclassification to Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Men on Active Surveillance. / Druskin, Sasha C.; Mamawala, Mufaddal; Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Epstein, Jonathan Ira; Pavlovich, Christian; Carter, H Ballentine; Trock, Bruce.

In: The Journal of Urology, Vol. 201, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 98-104.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Older Age Predicts Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Grade Reclassification to Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Men on Active Surveillance",
abstract = "PURPOSE: Age at prostate cancer diagnosis has been positively associated with prostate cancer specific mortality and in men on active surveillance with a higher risk of biopsy grade reclassification to Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater (Grade Group 2 or greater). However, to our knowledge the association between age and biopsy grade reclassification to an aggressive phenotype (Gleason score 4 + 3 or greater [Grade Group 3 or greater]) has not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2016 we followed 1,625 men 41 to 81 years old with NCCN{\circledR} (National Comprehensive Cancer Network{\circledR}) very low (68{\%}) or low (32{\%}) risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. We determined the rate of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater. Competing risk analysis was applied to evaluate the association between age at enrollment and the risk of biopsy grade reclassification. Additionally, in men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification we assessed the rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (ie radical prostatectomy Grade Group greater than biopsy Grade Group). RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater was 4{\%}, 7{\%} and 14{\%} in men younger than 60, 60 to 69 and 70 years old or older, respectively (p <0.001). On univariate analysis older age was associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.43, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis adjusting for year of diagnosis, race, prostate specific antigen density and cancer volume at diagnosis older age remained associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.19, p <0.001). In men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification those who were older had a higher rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In men on active surveillance older age at diagnosis was positively associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater and radical prostatectomy grade reclassification. These observations imply that for many older men, active surveillance as opposed to watchful waiting remains a more appropriate management strategy.",
author = "Druskin, {Sasha C.} and Mufaddal Mamawala and Tosoian, {Jeffrey J.} and Epstein, {Jonathan Ira} and Christian Pavlovich and Carter, {H Ballentine} and Bruce Trock",
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T1 - Older Age Predicts Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Grade Reclassification to Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Men on Active Surveillance

AU - Druskin, Sasha C.

AU - Mamawala, Mufaddal

AU - Tosoian, Jeffrey J.

AU - Epstein, Jonathan Ira

AU - Pavlovich, Christian

AU - Carter, H Ballentine

AU - Trock, Bruce

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - PURPOSE: Age at prostate cancer diagnosis has been positively associated with prostate cancer specific mortality and in men on active surveillance with a higher risk of biopsy grade reclassification to Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater (Grade Group 2 or greater). However, to our knowledge the association between age and biopsy grade reclassification to an aggressive phenotype (Gleason score 4 + 3 or greater [Grade Group 3 or greater]) has not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2016 we followed 1,625 men 41 to 81 years old with NCCN® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) very low (68%) or low (32%) risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. We determined the rate of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater. Competing risk analysis was applied to evaluate the association between age at enrollment and the risk of biopsy grade reclassification. Additionally, in men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification we assessed the rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (ie radical prostatectomy Grade Group greater than biopsy Grade Group). RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater was 4%, 7% and 14% in men younger than 60, 60 to 69 and 70 years old or older, respectively (p <0.001). On univariate analysis older age was associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.43, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis adjusting for year of diagnosis, race, prostate specific antigen density and cancer volume at diagnosis older age remained associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.19, p <0.001). In men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification those who were older had a higher rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In men on active surveillance older age at diagnosis was positively associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater and radical prostatectomy grade reclassification. These observations imply that for many older men, active surveillance as opposed to watchful waiting remains a more appropriate management strategy.

AB - PURPOSE: Age at prostate cancer diagnosis has been positively associated with prostate cancer specific mortality and in men on active surveillance with a higher risk of biopsy grade reclassification to Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater (Grade Group 2 or greater). However, to our knowledge the association between age and biopsy grade reclassification to an aggressive phenotype (Gleason score 4 + 3 or greater [Grade Group 3 or greater]) has not been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2016 we followed 1,625 men 41 to 81 years old with NCCN® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) very low (68%) or low (32%) risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. We determined the rate of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater. Competing risk analysis was applied to evaluate the association between age at enrollment and the risk of biopsy grade reclassification. Additionally, in men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification we assessed the rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (ie radical prostatectomy Grade Group greater than biopsy Grade Group). RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater was 4%, 7% and 14% in men younger than 60, 60 to 69 and 70 years old or older, respectively (p <0.001). On univariate analysis older age was associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.43, p <0.001). On multivariable analysis adjusting for year of diagnosis, race, prostate specific antigen density and cancer volume at diagnosis older age remained associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater (per 10-year increase HR 2.19, p <0.001). In men who underwent radical prostatectomy after biopsy grade reclassification those who were older had a higher rate of radical prostatectomy grade reclassification (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In men on active surveillance older age at diagnosis was positively associated with biopsy grade reclassification to Grade Group 3 or greater and radical prostatectomy grade reclassification. These observations imply that for many older men, active surveillance as opposed to watchful waiting remains a more appropriate management strategy.

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