Offspring sex ratio in smokers

M. M. Adil, U. A. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the ratio of male to female gender in the offspring of smokers and non-smokers. Method: The tool used for the survey was a questionnaire. Four hundred subjects were analyzed and were divided into three age groups. Results: Out of 400 subjects 56.5% were smokers and 43.5% were nonsmokers. Overall offspring sex ratio in nonsmokers was 1.53 and 0.61 in smokers. Conclusion: The smoking might be a contributing factor to a lower male to female sex ratio of offspring along with Estrogenic pollutants which are everywhere in the environment contaminating food, drinking water and air.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)442-443
Number of pages2
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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