Objective: To assess the ratio of male to female gender in the offspring of smokers and non-smokers. Method: The tool used for the survey was a questionnaire. Four hundred subjects were analyzed and were divided into three age groups. Results: Out of 400 subjects 56.5% were smokers and 43.5% were nonsmokers. Overall offspring sex ratio in nonsmokers was 1.53 and 0.61 in smokers. Conclusion: The smoking might be a contributing factor to a lower male to female sex ratio of offspring along with Estrogenic pollutants which are everywhere in the environment contaminating food, drinking water and air.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||2|
|Journal||Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association|
|State||Published - Aug 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas