In this article, we reviewed the nematode and trematode causes of uveitis encountered most often in the developing world. Many parasitic infections of the eye can be encountered in developing countries owing to poor hygiene, relative lack of public health education, and limited medical resources. The parasites T. canis, Onchocerca volvulus, Taenia solium, Ancylostoma caninum, Cysticercus celulosae, and Philophthalmus sps may all be responsible for blinding ocular infections, such as ocular toxocariasis, onchocerciasis, DUSN, ocular cysticercosis, and trematode infection of the anterior chamber, respectively. Treatment of uveitis is challenging in patients with parasitic infections. Systemic and periocular corticosteroids may be required in eyes with active uveitis. Specific antihelmintic therapy may be used to destroy nematodes and eliminate further migration of the larva, particularly in the setting of systemic disease, whereas pars plana vitrectomy can be considered in selected circumstances. Laser photocoagulation, when feasible, is the treatment of choice in eyes with DUSN.
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