Occurrence in Mexico, 1998-2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage

Munirul Alam, Shah Manzur Rashed, Shahnewaj Bin Mannan, Tarequl Islam, Marcial Leonardo Lizarraga-Partida, Gabriela Delgado, Rosario Morales-Espinosa, Jose Luis Mendez, Armando Navarro, Haruo Watanabe, Makoto Ohnishi, Nur A. Hasan, Anwar Huq, R. Bradley Sack, Rita R. Colwell, Alejandro Cravioto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ-. Most CTXΦ- V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpAET or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpACL. The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ+ ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ+ ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ- ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ+ ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9917-9922
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number27
StatePublished - Jul 8 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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