Objectives: We describe an approach to reanimation of complete, prolonged facial paralysis using minimally invasive temporalis tendon transfer (MIT3) by the melolabial or transoral approach. Objective outcome measures are evaluated based on symmetry, and grading of preoperative/post-operative results and the scar at the melolabial fold. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Twenty-five patients undergoing the MIT3 technique were studied. Photographic analysis was used to determine the percentage of difference between the 2 sides (symmetry). Using the Delphi method to achieve consensus, a panel of experts graded pre/post-operative photos using the Terzis’ Facial Grading System and a 1 to 10 Likert-type scale and the melolabial scar using the Beausang Scar Scale. Results: Percentage of difference (symmetry) with smiling improved from 18.6% ± 1.5% (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) preoperatively to 5.0 ± 0.9% (mean ± SEM) post-operatively. Expert grading by the Terzis system showed improvement post-operatively (mean 3.7/5; median 3.6/5) versus preoperatively (mean 1.5/5; median 1.2/5). Perceived improvement was also largely favourable (mean 8.1/10; median 8.0/10). Melolabial scar grading was favourable in terms of colour (mean 1.53/4), surface character (mean 1.05/2), contour (mean 1.60/4), and distortion (mean 1.74/4). Conclusions: The MIT3 technique offers immediate, predictable, and symmetrical return of smile function. Objective symmetry analysis and favourable expert grading of both pre-/post-operative photographs and the scar at the melolabial fold demonstrate applicability for facial reanimation in patients where other procedures have failed, or when a direct return to function is desired. Both the melolabial approach and transoral approach were found to be acceptable and effective, although applicability varies.
|Translated title of the contribution||Objective outcomes of minimally invasive temporalis tendon transfer for prolonged complete facial paralysis|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2017|
- Facial paralysis
- Tendon transfer
ASJC Scopus subject areas