Nutritional and metabolic bone disease in a zoological population - A review of radiologic findings

Matthew T. Freedman, Mitchell Bush, Gary R. Novak, Richard M. Heller, A. Everette James

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The radiologic survey technique used at the National Zoological Park has disclosed many cases of nutritional and metabolic bone disease of various types. This communication discusses calcium deficiency states seen in lion cubs associated with a meat diet, the increased need for calcium noted in egg-laying lizards, problems found in New World monkeys, antelopes (due to selenium and/or vitamin E deficiency), hypervitaminosis D, and lead poisoning noted in young primates. In all of these diagnoses, the use of routine radiographic studies has been extremely helpful, first in detecting that a bone or soft tissue abnormality is present, and then in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of this abnormality. As more is learned of the necessary nutriments for exotic species kept in captivity, it is expected that the nutritional disturbances described in this article will be seen with decreasing frequency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-96
Number of pages10
JournalSkeletal Radiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 1976


  • Animals, zoo
  • Bone disease, metabolic
  • Metabolic diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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