Nutrition and physical activity recommendations from the United States and European cardiovascular guidelines: A comparative review

Richard A. Ferraro, Nicole Mercado Fischer, Helen Xun, Erin D. Michos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of review A healthy lifestyle throughout one's lifespan is the core foundation for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk-based decisions for pharmacological therapy is added ontop of lifestyle management. Thus, understanding lifestyle-based recommendations is central to CVD prevention. Recent findings In 2018 and 2019, the American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) published new guidelines for lipid management and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), respectively. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) published new guidelines on lipids and diabetes management in 2019. These guidelines provide recommendations on diet and lifestyle for reducing cardiovascular risk. Both encourage heart-healthy diets consistent with Mediterranean, DASH, or healthy vegetarian patterns. Both provide guidance for recommended physical activity levels but acknowledge any physical activity, even less than recommended, is better than inactivity. Although both ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS guidelines have similar approaches to achieve the same goal of CVD prevention, there were some differences between them. Summary In this review, we discussed similarities and differences between the American and European guidelines to familiarize clinicians with both sets of lifestyle recommendations in an effort to provide best practices in individualized patient-care for CVD prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)508-516
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent opinion in cardiology
Volume35
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diet
  • Guidelines
  • Nutrition
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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