Nondenaturing gel electrophoresis was used to study the nucleotide substrate-induced conformational change in reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I). Dead-end complex was formed between HIV-I RT, dideoxynucleotide chain-terminated primer, and DNA template in the presence of deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) complementary to the next position on the template. Complexes which form in the absence of the next complementary dNTP were disrupted by adding excess poly(rA)/oligo(dT) or heparin just prior to electrophoresis. Dead-end complex formation by noncomplementary dNTP's or ribonucleotides was at least 2000-fold less efficient than with the complementary nucleotide. When dA was the next nucleotide on the template, analogues of dTTP supported dead-end complex formation with increased apparent K(d) (dTTP < dideoxy-TTP AK α-thio-dTTP < dUTP < 3'-azidothymidine triphosphate). A similar relationship was observed for dGTP analogues across from dC on the template (dGTP < dideoxy-GTP < α- thio-dGTP < < dITP < dideoxy-ITP). The optimal length of the primer/template duplex region for dead-end complex formation was between 20 and 32 base pairs. Primer-template with a mismatched primer terminus did not support dead-end complex formation, and primer terminated with 3'-azidothymidine formed dead-end complex with 25-fold elevated apparent K(d). By contrast, dead-end complex formation on primer terminated with dideoxy-IMP base paired with dC on the template was more efficient than on primer terminated with dideoxy-GMP. Implications for the mechanisms of discrimination between nucleotide analogues by HIV-I RT are discussed.
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