Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a significant role in tumor development and progression. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) exhibit potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo by COX-2-dependent and COX-2-independent mechanisms. In this study, we used microarray analysis to identify the change of expression profile regulated by a COX-2-specific NSAID NS-398 (0.01 and 0.1 mmol/L), a nonspecific NSAID ibuprofen (0.1 and 1.5 mmol/L) and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated COX-2 inhibition in PC3 prostate cancer cells. A total of 3,362 differentially expressed genes with 2-fold change and P < 0.05 were identified. Low concentrations of NSAIDs and COX-2 RNAi altered very few genes (1-3%) compared with the higher concentration of NS-398 (17%) and ibuprofen (80%). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for distributing the differentially expressed genes into biological networks and for evaluation of functional significance. The top 3 networks for both NSAIDs included functional categories of DNA replication, recombination and repair, and gastrointestinal disease. Immunoresponse function was specific to NS-398, and cell cycle and cellular movement were among the top functions for ibuprofen. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also identified renal and urologic disease as a function specific for ibuprofen. This comprehensive study identified several COX-2-independent targets of NSAIDs, which may help explain the antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of NSAIDs. However, none of these categories were reflected in the identified networks in PC3 cells treated with clinically relevant low concentrations of NS-398 and ibuprofen or with COX-2 RNAi, suggesting the benefit to fingerprinting preclinical drug concentrations to improve their relevance to the clinical setting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research