A novel method for processing respiratory specimens to improve culture and acid-fast staining of mycobacteria is introduced. This new method utilized N,N-dimethyl-N-(n-octadecyl) N-(3-carboxypropyl)ammonium inner salt (Chemical Abstract Service no. 78195-27-4), also known as C13- carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18). In a blinded, five-center study, CB-18-based processing was compared to the standard method combining NALC and NaOH (NALC/NaOH). A total of 573 respiratory specimens were tested. Individual specimens were split approximately equally; the host institutions processed half of each specimen by the NALC/NaOH method, while the other half was processed with CB-18 at Quest Diagnostics - Baltimore. A total of 106 specimens were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Replacement of the primary decontamination agent with CB-18 caused changes in and diagnostic parameters. Aggregate culture sensitivity improved by approximately 43% (P < 0.01), and smear sensitivity improved by approximately 58% (P < 0.01). The sensitivity of smear relative to that of M. tuberculosis isolates exceeded 93% (P < 0.01) when specimens were processed with CB-18. The average times to a positive results were reduced by 7.3 days in liquid culture (P < 0.01) and 5.3 days on solid media (P < 0.05); however, the CB-18 method had a 20.8% contamination rate in liquid culture versus a rate of approximately 7.5% with NALG/NaOH processing. There were also unusual reductions in liquid culture sensitivity and smear specificity among CB-18-processed specimens. The characteristics of the latter parameters suggested that refinement of the CB- 18 processing method should allow further improvements in culture sensitivity. This study showed that the CB-18 method has the potential to improve both smear and culture detection for these important human pathogens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)