The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has significantly evolved in recent years, particularly with the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Despite the striking benefits observed on a population level, outcomes vary and some patients do not respond to ICI-based regimens, ultimately require salvage therapies. An ever deeper understanding of the disease biology mediated by the development of multiple high-throughput molecular omics has led to significant progress in biomarkers discovery. But despite growing insights into the molecular underpinnings of the tumor microenvironment, biomarkers have not been integrated successfully into clinical practice. In this review, we discuss some of the novel emerging predictive biomarkers to ICIs in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology|
|State||Published - Nov 2021|
- immune checkpoint
- precision medicine
ASJC Scopus subject areas