Novel combined VATS/laparoscopic approach for giant and complicated paraesophageal hernia repair: description of technique and early results

Daniela Molena, Benedetto Mungo, Miloslawa Stem, Anne O. Lidor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach for repair of giant and/or recurrent paraesophageal hernias (PEH) is challenging, due to limited access to the dissection of the hernia sac into the proximal mediastinum and esophageal mobilization through the diaphragmatic hiatus. An esophageal lengthening procedure is often necessary, due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate intra-abdominal esophageal length. We, therefore, developed a VATS and laparoscopic technique, which allows for safe and extensive thoracic dissection and intra-abdominal gastric fixation and cruroplasty, yet preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.

METHODS: We use a standard VATS approach. The hernia sac, optimally visualized, is dissected posteriorly from the thoracic aorta, inferiorly from its diaphragmatic attachments, anteriorly from the pericardium, and laterally from the mediastinal pleura. The esophagus is completely mobilized up to the aortic arch, and the anterior vagus nerve is released from its bronchial branches. The hernia sac is then opened, dissected, and completely removed. The hernia content is then reduced into the abdomen laparoscopically, the short gastric vessels are divided and the gastric fundus is completely mobilized. The hiatus is closed with interrupted sutures, and the cruroplasty is buttressed with a biological mesh. A floppy Nissen or a partial fundoplication and a gastropexy are done for reflux control and gastric fixation.

RESULTS: From January 2012 to January 2014, we treated 18 patients (7 with type III PEH and 11 with type IV) with the above-described procedure. Six patients had previous history of antireflux surgery. We performed a planned laparotomy instead of laparoscopy in two patients, who needed concurrent repair of complex incisional hernias. We did not need esophageal lengthening procedures, nor experienced damages to thoracic structures in any patient.

CONCLUSIONS: Our newly developed surgical approach has proven to be safe and feasible. This technique represents a good option for treatment of giant and complicated PEH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-191
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery
Hiatal Hernia
Herniorrhaphy
Hernia
Stomach
Thoracic Aorta
Dissection
Thorax
Gastropexy
Gastric Fundus
Fundoplication
Vagus Nerve
Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Pleura
Pericardium
Mediastinum
Abdomen
Laparoscopy
Laparotomy
Sutures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Novel combined VATS/laparoscopic approach for giant and complicated paraesophageal hernia repair : description of technique and early results. / Molena, Daniela; Mungo, Benedetto; Stem, Miloslawa; Lidor, Anne O.

In: Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, Vol. 29, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 185-191.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach for repair of giant and/or recurrent paraesophageal hernias (PEH) is challenging, due to limited access to the dissection of the hernia sac into the proximal mediastinum and esophageal mobilization through the diaphragmatic hiatus. An esophageal lengthening procedure is often necessary, due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate intra-abdominal esophageal length. We, therefore, developed a VATS and laparoscopic technique, which allows for safe and extensive thoracic dissection and intra-abdominal gastric fixation and cruroplasty, yet preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery.METHODS: We use a standard VATS approach. The hernia sac, optimally visualized, is dissected posteriorly from the thoracic aorta, inferiorly from its diaphragmatic attachments, anteriorly from the pericardium, and laterally from the mediastinal pleura. The esophagus is completely mobilized up to the aortic arch, and the anterior vagus nerve is released from its bronchial branches. The hernia sac is then opened, dissected, and completely removed. The hernia content is then reduced into the abdomen laparoscopically, the short gastric vessels are divided and the gastric fundus is completely mobilized. The hiatus is closed with interrupted sutures, and the cruroplasty is buttressed with a biological mesh. A floppy Nissen or a partial fundoplication and a gastropexy are done for reflux control and gastric fixation.RESULTS: From January 2012 to January 2014, we treated 18 patients (7 with type III PEH and 11 with type IV) with the above-described procedure. Six patients had previous history of antireflux surgery. We performed a planned laparotomy instead of laparoscopy in two patients, who needed concurrent repair of complex incisional hernias. We did not need esophageal lengthening procedures, nor experienced damages to thoracic structures in any patient.CONCLUSIONS: Our newly developed surgical approach has proven to be safe and feasible. This technique represents a good option for treatment of giant and complicated PEH.

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