Normal values for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults and children

Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Alicia Maceira, Emanuela R. Valsangiacomo-Buechel, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Evrim B. Turkbey, Rupert Williams, Sven Plein, Michael Tee, John Eng, David A. Bluemke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Morphological and functional parameters such as chamber size and function, aortic diameters and distensibility, flow and T1 and T2∗relaxation time can be assessed and quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Knowledge of normal values for quantitative CMR is crucial to interpretation of results and to distinguish normal from disease. In this review, we present normal reference values for morphological and functional CMR parameters of the cardiovascular system based on the peer-reviewed literature and current CMR techniques and sequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number29
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 18 2015


  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
  • Normal values
  • Reference values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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