Cyclophosphamide (Cy) is a potent immunosuppressive agent that is selectively toxic to lymphocytes proliferating in response to recent antigen stimulation. In animal models, both graft rejection and GVHD after histoincompatible BMT can be inhibited by the posttransplantation administration of high-dose Cy. Therefore, a phase I clinical trial was undertaken to determine the minimal conditioning, including posttransplantation Cy, that permits the stable engraftment of partially HLA-mismatched marrow (up to 3 HLA antigens) from first-degree relatives. Thirteen patients (median age, 53 years) with high-risk hematologic malignancies received conditioning with fludarabine, 30 mg/m2 per day from days -6 to -2, and TBI, 2 Gy on day -1. All patientes received Cy, 50 mg/kg on day 3, mycophenolate mofetil from day 4 to day 35, and tacrolimus from day 4 to day ≥50. Three patients in cohort 1 received no additional conditioning, and 2 experienced graft rejection. Ten patients in cohort 2 received identical conditioning with the addition of Cy 14.5 mg/kg on days -6 and -5. Sustained donor cell engraftment occurred in 8 of these patients, with a median time to absolute neutrophil count >500/μL of 15 days (range, 13-16 days) and to unsupported platelet count >20,000/μL of 14 days (range, 0-26 days). All patients with engraftment achieved ≥95% donor chimerism within 60 days of transplantation. Two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome rejected their grafts but experienced autologous neutrophil recovery at 24 and 44 days. Histologic acute GVHD developed in 6 patients (grade II in 3 patients, grade III in 3 patients) at a median of 99 days (range, 38-143 days) after transplantation and was fatal in 1 patient. At a median follow-up of 191 days (range, 124-423 days), 6 of 10 patients in cohort 2 were alive, and 5 were in complete remission of their disease, including both patients with graft rejection. These data demonstrate that partially HLA-mismatched bone marrow can engraft rapidly and stably after nonmyeloablative conditioning that includes posttransplantation Cy. Clinically significant antitumor responses occur, even among patients who reject their donor grafts.
- HLA-mismatched related donors
- Nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation
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