Noninvasive imaging of infection after treatment with tumor-homing bacteria using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI

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Abstract

Purpose To develop a noninvasive MRI method for determining the germination and infection of tumor-homing bacteria in bacteriolytic cancer therapy using endogenous CEST contrast. Methods The CEST parameters of the anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Clostridium novyi-NT (C. novyi-NT) were first characterized in vitro, then used to detect C. novyi-NT germination and infection in subcutaneous CT26 colorectal tumor-bearing mice (n = 6) after injection of 300 million bacterial spores. Lipopolysacharide (LPS) injected mice were used to exclude that the changes of CEST MRI were due to inflammation. Results CEST contrast was observed over a broad frequency range for bacterial suspensions in vitro, with the maximum contrast around 2.6 ppm from the water resonance. No signal could be detected for bacterial spores, demonstrating the specificity for germination. In vivo, a significant elevation of CEST contrast was identified in C. novyi-NT infected tumors as compared to those before bacterial germination and infection (P < 0.05; n = 6). No significant change was observed in tumors with LPS-induced sterile inflammation (P > 0.05; n = 4). Conclusion Endogenous bacterial CEST contrast (bacCEST) can be used to monitor the germination and proliferation of the therapeutic bacterium C. novyi-NT without a need for exogenous cell labeling probes. Magn Reson Med 70:1690-1698, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1690-1698
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Volume70
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2013

Keywords

  • CEST MRI
  • bacteria imaging
  • endogenous CEST contrast
  • molecular imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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