Introduction: During the past decade, there have been significant advances in the pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Among the presently available treatment options, anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF) agents are the most favored agents due to their efficacy and safety. The index review focuses on nonbiological therapies that have entered in phase 3 clinical trials for DME.Areas covered: An extensive review of the literature was performed to identify various nonbiological immunotherapies i.e., drugs other than -mAbs (monoclonal antibodies including anti-VEGF agents), -mibs (proteasome inhibitors), -NAbs (nanoparticle albumin-bound), and -nibs (small molecule inhibitor/tyrosine kinase inhibitors), among others. Extended-release low-dose corticosteroid devices have been recently approved for the treatment of DME. Other compounds such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibody mimetic proteins, nonbiological growth factor inhibitors, and inhibitors of protein kinase C have been described.Expert opinion: A number of therapies are under development for the pharmacological management of DME. Due to the rising healthcare costs associated with anti-VEGF agents, a number of alternate treatment options have been explored recently. Some of these agents have reached phase 3 in clinical trials and appear to have a promising role in the management of DME. As further research is conducted, the role of each individual agent will become more defined, alone or in combination therapy.
- clinical trials
- diabetic macular edema
- nonbiological pharmacotherapy
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)