Nitric oxide (NO) induces cytotoxicity and angiogenesis, and may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, potentially modulated by environmental exposures. We evaluated the association of prostate cancer with genetic polymorphisms in two genes related to intracellular NO: NOS2A [inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS); -2892T>C, Ex16 + 14C>T (S608L), IVS16 + 88T>G and IVS20 + 524G>A ] and NOS3 [endothelial NOS; IVS1 - 762C>T, Ex7 - 43C>T (D258D), IVS7 - 26A>G, Ex8 - 63G>T (E298D) and IVS15 - 62G>T ]. Prostate cancer cases (n = 1320) from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were frequency matched to controls (n = 1842), by age, race, time since initial screening and year of blood draw. An antioxidant score [range 3-12; low (3-7) versus high (8-12)] was created by summing the quartile levels of vitamin E, β-carotene and lycopene, which were coded from 1 to 4, respectively. The global tests for all eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (excluding NOS2A -2892T>C, with low minor allele frequency) were statistically significant for prostate cancer (P = 0.005), especially for aggressive cancer (stage III-IV or Gleason score ≥ 7) (P = 0.01). The NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT was associated with increased prostate caner risk (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.54), whereas the IVS20 + 524 AG/GG was associated with decreased risk (0.77, 0.66-0.90). The NOS3 IVS7 - 26GG was associated with increased prostate caner risk (1.33, 1.07-1.64). All these SNPs showed significant associations with aggressive cancer and not for non-aggressive cancer. In the evaluation of effect modification, the effect of the NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT on aggressive cancer was stronger among subjects with higher antioxidant intake (1.61, 1.18-2.19; Pinteraction = 0.01). Our results suggest that NOS gene polymorphisms are genetic susceptibility factors for aggressive prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research