Nitric Oxide

D. Giovinazzo, V. L. Dawson, T. M. Dawson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is an unprecedented neurotransmitter. NO is a small, labile, lipid-permeable free radical molecule. It is synthesized by NO synthase (NOS) and diffuses from its site of synthesis to targets in surrounding cells. NO forms covalent and noncovalent linkages with protein and nonprotein targets to elicit its biological effects. The process of covalently linking NO with protein targets is termed S-nitrosylation, and has become a primary focus of research in the field. NO depends on its small size, reactivity, and diffusibility more than any other biological molecule to exert its biological effects. NO plays important roles in the normal function as well as the dysfunction of the brain, paradoxically exhibiting cytoprotective as well as cytotoxic properties in different contexts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages597-600
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780123851574
ISBN (Print)9780123851581
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Keywords

  • GAPDH
  • Glutamate
  • Iduna
  • LTD
  • LTP
  • NADPH diaphorase
  • NMDA
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitric oxide synthase
  • Parthanatos
  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
  • S-nitrosylation
  • Transnitrosylation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Giovinazzo, D., Dawson, V. L., & Dawson, T. M. (2014). Nitric Oxide. In Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (pp. 597-600). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385157-4.00046-4