Nicotine delivery systems

Saul Shiffman, Reginald V. Fant, August R. Buchhalter, Joseph G. Gitchell, Jack E. Henningfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Over the past 20 years, medicinal nicotine has been used to aid smoking cessation, and has led to a significant increase in the number of smokers who successfully quit. This review describes currently available medicinal nicotine products, which include nicotine patch, gum, lozenge, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablet, including their pharmacokinetics and recommended dosing. New developments in nicotine delivery that could further increase cessation rates include high-dose patches, rapid release gum, combined patch and acute forms, and several novel channels for nicotine delivery, such as nicotine drink, straw, lollipop and a pulmonary inhaler. New applications of existing and novel medicinal nicotine products may include relapse prevention, nicotine maintenance, temporary withdrawal management, reduced smoking and gradual quitting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)563-577
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2005


  • Gum
  • Inhaler
  • Lozenge
  • Nasal spray
  • Nicotine
  • Patch
  • Tablet
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Nicotine delivery systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this