New approaches in clinical chemistry: On-line analyte concentration and microreaction capillary electrophoresis for the determination of drugs, metabolic intermediates, and biopolymers in biological fluids

N. A. Guzman, S. S. Park, D. Schaufelberger, L. Hernandez, X. Paez, P. Rada, A. J. Tomlinson, S. Naylor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for clinically relevant assays is attractive since it often presents many advantages over contemporary methods, The small-diameter tubing that holds the separation medium has led to the development of multicapillary instruments, and simultaneous sample analysis. Furthermore, CE is compatible with a wide range of detectors, including UV-Vis, fluorescence, laser-induced fluorescence, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, radiometric, and more recently nuclear magnetic resonance, and laser-induced circular dichroism systems. Selection of an appropriate detector can yield highly specific analyte detection with good mass sensitivity. Another attractive feature of CE is the low consumption of sample and reagents. However, it is paradoxical that this advantage also leads to severe limitation, namely poor concentration sensitivity. Often high analyte concentrations are required in order to have injection of sufficient material for detection. In this regard, a series of devices that are broadly termed 'analyte concentrators' have been developed for analyte preconcentration on-line with the CE capillary. These devices have been used primarily for non-specific analyte preconcentration using packing material of the C,, type. Alternatively, the use of very specific antibody-containing cartridges and enzyme-immobilized microreactors have been demonstrated. In the current report, we review the likely impact of the technology of capillary electrophoresis and the role of the CE analyte concentrator-microreactor on the analysis of biomolecules, present on complex matrices, in a clinical laboratory. Specific examples of the direct analysis of physiologically-derived fluids and microdialysates are presented, and a personal view of the future of CE in the clinical environment is given.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-66
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Applications
Volume697
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biopolymers
  • Drugs
  • Enzymes
  • Lectin
  • Metabolites
  • Reviews

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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