Neuroinflammation After Stereotactic Radiosurgery-Induced Brain Tumor Disintegration Is Linked to Persistent Cognitive Decline in a Mouse Model of Metastatic Disease

Chengyan Chu, Catherine M. Davis, Xiaoyan Lan, Robert D. Hienz, Anna Jablonska, Aline M. Thomas, Esteban Velarde, Shen Li, Miroslaw Janowski, Mihoko Kai, Piotr Walczak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Improved efficacy of anticancer therapy and a growing pool of survivors give rise to a question about their quality of life and return to premorbid status. Radiation is effective in brain metastasis eradication, although the optimal approach and long-term effects on brain function are largely unknown. We studied the effects of radiosurgery on brain function. Methods and Materials: Adult C57BL/6J mice with or without brain metastases (rat 9L gliosarcoma) were treated with cone beam single-arc stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS; 40 Gy). Tumor growth was monitored using bioluminescence, whereas longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging, behavioral studies, and histologic analysis were performed to evaluate brain response to the treatment for up to 18 months. Results: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) resulted in 9L metastases eradication within 4 weeks with subsequent long-term survival of all treated animals, whereas all nontreated animals succumbed to the brain tumor. Behavioral impairment, as measured with a recognition memory test, was observed earlier in mice subjected to radiosurgery of tumors (6 weeks) in comparison to SRS of healthy brain tissue (10 weeks). Notably, the deficit resolved by 18 weeks only in mice not bearing a tumor, whereas tumor eradication was complicated by the persistent cognitive deficits. In addition, the results of magnetic resonance imaging were unremarkable in both groups, and histopathology revealed changes. SRS-induced tumor eradication triggered long-lasting and exacerbated neuroinflammatory response. No demyelination, neuronal loss, or hemorrhage was detected in any of the groups. Conclusions: Tumor disintegration by SRS leads to exacerbated neuroinflammation and persistent cognitive deficits; therefore, methods aiming at reducing inflammation after tumor eradication or other therapeutic methods should be sought.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)745-757
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume108
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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