Neuroimaging has advanced the study of brain structure and function in schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging provides measures of whole brain and regional anatomy and cerebrospinal fluid volume. Functional methods have included the Xenon-133 technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF); positron emission tomography for assessing metabolism, CBF, and neuroreceptor functioning; and single photon emission computed tomography for studying CBF and neuroreceptors. Despite heterogeneity of patient samples, and studies which differed in the methodologies applied, there is converging evidence implicating three brain systems: frontal, temporolimbic, and basal ganglia. Current emphasis is aimed at probing specific regions across imaging modalities. Now these findings and research paradigms in neuroimaging must be integrated with phenomenological, neurobehavioral, and neuropathological investigations. The application of this technology is already helping to elucidate the neurobiology of schizophrenia, and further important advances can be anticipated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health