OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in the proteome associated with onset and progression of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis, also known as ATTRv amyloidosis, we performed an observational, case-controlled study that compared proteomes of patients with ATTRv amyloidosis and healthy controls. METHODS: Plasma levels of >1,000 proteins were measured in patients with ATTRv amyloidosis with polyneuropathy who received either placebo or patisiran in a Phase 3 study of patisiran (APOLLO), and in healthy controls. The effect of patisiran on the time profile of each protein was determined by linear mixed model at 0, 9, and 18 months. Neurofilament light chain (NfL) was further assessed with an orthogonal quantitative approach. RESULTS: Levels of 66 proteins were significantly changed with patisiran vs placebo, with NfL change most significant (p < 10-20). Analysis of changes in protein levels demonstrated that the proteome of patients treated with patisiran trended toward that of healthy controls at 18 months. Healthy controls' NfL levels were 4-fold lower than in patients with ATTRv amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (16.3 pg/mL vs 69.4 pg/mL, effect -53.1 pg/mL [95% confidence interval -60.5 to -45.9]). NfL levels at 18 months increased with placebo (99.5 pg/mL vs 63.2 pg/mL, effect 36.3 pg/mL [16.5-56.1]) and decreased with patisiran treatment (48.8 pg/mL vs 72.1 pg/mL, effect -23.3 pg/mL [-33.4 to -13.1]) from baseline. At 18 months, improvement in modified Neuropathy Impairment Score +7 score after patisiran treatment significantly correlated with reduced NfL (R = 0.43 [0.29-0.55]). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that NfL may serve as a biomarker of nerve damage and polyneuropathy in ATTRv amyloidosis, enable earlier diagnosis of patients with ATTRv amyloidosis, and facilitate monitoring of disease progression. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that NfL levels may enable earlier diagnosis of polyneuropathy in patients with ATTRv amyloidosis and facilitate monitoring of disease progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology