Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery.

Shannon E G Hamrick, David B. Gremmels, Corinne A. Keet, Carol H. Leonard, J. Kelly Connell, Samuel Hawgood, Robert E. Piecuch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who underwent cardiac surgery and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and to examine variables that predict death or disability in these patients. METHODS: We studied all infants who had congenital heart disease and were supported postoperatively with ECMO from 1990 to 2001 at our institution (n = 53). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to obtain clinical variables. Neurologic and age-appropriate developmental examinations occurred at ages 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years. Median age at follow-up was 55 months (9-101). Cognitive outcome was defined as suspect when scores were between 1 and 2 SD below the mean for age and abnormal when scores were >2 SD below mean for age. Neuromotor outcome was defined as suspect when the patient manifested clumsiness, tremor, or mild tone and reflex changes without functional limitations, and abnormal when there were functional limitations. RESULTS: In-hospital survival was 17 (32%) of 53. Of survivors, 14 (88%) of 16 are living and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Of the 53 patients, 7 survived completely intact (13%). Seven (50%) of 14 patients had a normal cognitive outcome, 3 (21%) had a suspect cognitive outcome, and 4 (29%) were abnormal. Ten (72%) of 14 patients had a normal neuromotor outcome, 1 (7%) patient had a suspect neuromotor outcome, and 3 (21%) were abnormal. No survivor with an aortic cross-clamp time >40 minutes had a normal cognitive outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have had cardiac arrest as an indication for ECMO (31% vs 6%), to have had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (mean 73 minutes vs 32 minutes), and to have required continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (78% vs 35%). The age and weight at cannulation, gender, cardiac diagnosis, interval from surgery to ECMO, cardiopulmonary bypass time, diagnosis of sepsis or mediastinitis, and duration of ECMO were not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality was 68% in infants who had congenital heart disease and were treated with ECMO postoperatively, of those who survive to hospital discharge, 75% have a normal neuromotor outcome and 50% have a normal cognitive outcome. These high rates of mortality and disability suggest that increased attention be paid to neuroprotection in these complex disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPediatrics
Volume111
Issue number6 Pt 1
StatePublished - Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Thoracic Surgery
Survivors
Heart Diseases
Mediastinitis
Hemofiltration
Survival
Mortality
Lost to Follow-Up
Tremor
Heart Arrest
Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Catheterization
Nervous System
Medical Records
Reflex
Sepsis
Weights and Measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Hamrick, S. E. G., Gremmels, D. B., Keet, C. A., Leonard, C. H., Connell, J. K., Hawgood, S., & Piecuch, R. E. (2003). Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. Pediatrics, 111(6 Pt 1).

Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. / Hamrick, Shannon E G; Gremmels, David B.; Keet, Corinne A.; Leonard, Carol H.; Connell, J. Kelly; Hawgood, Samuel; Piecuch, Robert E.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 111, No. 6 Pt 1, 06.2003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hamrick, SEG, Gremmels, DB, Keet, CA, Leonard, CH, Connell, JK, Hawgood, S & Piecuch, RE 2003, 'Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery.', Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 6 Pt 1.
Hamrick SEG, Gremmels DB, Keet CA, Leonard CH, Connell JK, Hawgood S et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun;111(6 Pt 1).
Hamrick, Shannon E G ; Gremmels, David B. ; Keet, Corinne A. ; Leonard, Carol H. ; Connell, J. Kelly ; Hawgood, Samuel ; Piecuch, Robert E. / Neurodevelopmental outcome of infants supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. In: Pediatrics. 2003 ; Vol. 111, No. 6 Pt 1.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who underwent cardiac surgery and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and to examine variables that predict death or disability in these patients. METHODS: We studied all infants who had congenital heart disease and were supported postoperatively with ECMO from 1990 to 2001 at our institution (n = 53). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to obtain clinical variables. Neurologic and age-appropriate developmental examinations occurred at ages 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years. Median age at follow-up was 55 months (9-101). Cognitive outcome was defined as suspect when scores were between 1 and 2 SD below the mean for age and abnormal when scores were >2 SD below mean for age. Neuromotor outcome was defined as suspect when the patient manifested clumsiness, tremor, or mild tone and reflex changes without functional limitations, and abnormal when there were functional limitations. RESULTS: In-hospital survival was 17 (32{\%}) of 53. Of survivors, 14 (88{\%}) of 16 are living and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Of the 53 patients, 7 survived completely intact (13{\%}). Seven (50{\%}) of 14 patients had a normal cognitive outcome, 3 (21{\%}) had a suspect cognitive outcome, and 4 (29{\%}) were abnormal. Ten (72{\%}) of 14 patients had a normal neuromotor outcome, 1 (7{\%}) patient had a suspect neuromotor outcome, and 3 (21{\%}) were abnormal. No survivor with an aortic cross-clamp time >40 minutes had a normal cognitive outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have had cardiac arrest as an indication for ECMO (31{\%} vs 6{\%}), to have had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (mean 73 minutes vs 32 minutes), and to have required continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (78{\%} vs 35{\%}). The age and weight at cannulation, gender, cardiac diagnosis, interval from surgery to ECMO, cardiopulmonary bypass time, diagnosis of sepsis or mediastinitis, and duration of ECMO were not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality was 68{\%} in infants who had congenital heart disease and were treated with ECMO postoperatively, of those who survive to hospital discharge, 75{\%} have a normal neuromotor outcome and 50{\%} have a normal cognitive outcome. These high rates of mortality and disability suggest that increased attention be paid to neuroprotection in these complex disorders.",
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AU - Hamrick, Shannon E G

AU - Gremmels, David B.

AU - Keet, Corinne A.

AU - Leonard, Carol H.

AU - Connell, J. Kelly

AU - Hawgood, Samuel

AU - Piecuch, Robert E.

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who underwent cardiac surgery and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and to examine variables that predict death or disability in these patients. METHODS: We studied all infants who had congenital heart disease and were supported postoperatively with ECMO from 1990 to 2001 at our institution (n = 53). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to obtain clinical variables. Neurologic and age-appropriate developmental examinations occurred at ages 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years. Median age at follow-up was 55 months (9-101). Cognitive outcome was defined as suspect when scores were between 1 and 2 SD below the mean for age and abnormal when scores were >2 SD below mean for age. Neuromotor outcome was defined as suspect when the patient manifested clumsiness, tremor, or mild tone and reflex changes without functional limitations, and abnormal when there were functional limitations. RESULTS: In-hospital survival was 17 (32%) of 53. Of survivors, 14 (88%) of 16 are living and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Of the 53 patients, 7 survived completely intact (13%). Seven (50%) of 14 patients had a normal cognitive outcome, 3 (21%) had a suspect cognitive outcome, and 4 (29%) were abnormal. Ten (72%) of 14 patients had a normal neuromotor outcome, 1 (7%) patient had a suspect neuromotor outcome, and 3 (21%) were abnormal. No survivor with an aortic cross-clamp time >40 minutes had a normal cognitive outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have had cardiac arrest as an indication for ECMO (31% vs 6%), to have had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (mean 73 minutes vs 32 minutes), and to have required continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (78% vs 35%). The age and weight at cannulation, gender, cardiac diagnosis, interval from surgery to ECMO, cardiopulmonary bypass time, diagnosis of sepsis or mediastinitis, and duration of ECMO were not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality was 68% in infants who had congenital heart disease and were treated with ECMO postoperatively, of those who survive to hospital discharge, 75% have a normal neuromotor outcome and 50% have a normal cognitive outcome. These high rates of mortality and disability suggest that increased attention be paid to neuroprotection in these complex disorders.

AB - OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who underwent cardiac surgery and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, and to examine variables that predict death or disability in these patients. METHODS: We studied all infants who had congenital heart disease and were supported postoperatively with ECMO from 1990 to 2001 at our institution (n = 53). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to obtain clinical variables. Neurologic and age-appropriate developmental examinations occurred at ages 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years. Median age at follow-up was 55 months (9-101). Cognitive outcome was defined as suspect when scores were between 1 and 2 SD below the mean for age and abnormal when scores were >2 SD below mean for age. Neuromotor outcome was defined as suspect when the patient manifested clumsiness, tremor, or mild tone and reflex changes without functional limitations, and abnormal when there were functional limitations. RESULTS: In-hospital survival was 17 (32%) of 53. Of survivors, 14 (88%) of 16 are living and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Of the 53 patients, 7 survived completely intact (13%). Seven (50%) of 14 patients had a normal cognitive outcome, 3 (21%) had a suspect cognitive outcome, and 4 (29%) were abnormal. Ten (72%) of 14 patients had a normal neuromotor outcome, 1 (7%) patient had a suspect neuromotor outcome, and 3 (21%) were abnormal. No survivor with an aortic cross-clamp time >40 minutes had a normal cognitive outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have had cardiac arrest as an indication for ECMO (31% vs 6%), to have had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (mean 73 minutes vs 32 minutes), and to have required continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (78% vs 35%). The age and weight at cannulation, gender, cardiac diagnosis, interval from surgery to ECMO, cardiopulmonary bypass time, diagnosis of sepsis or mediastinitis, and duration of ECMO were not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality was 68% in infants who had congenital heart disease and were treated with ECMO postoperatively, of those who survive to hospital discharge, 75% have a normal neuromotor outcome and 50% have a normal cognitive outcome. These high rates of mortality and disability suggest that increased attention be paid to neuroprotection in these complex disorders.

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