Background: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by enlarged, cystic kidneys with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), systemic hypertension, and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Children with ARPKD can have early onset CKD and severe hypertension, both of which are known to have adverse neurocognitive effects. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether ARPKD patients have greater neurocognitive deficits compared to that of children with other causes of CKD, and (2) to examine the relative prevalence of hypertension in ARPKD, a known risk factor for neurocognitive dysfunction.
Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, control-matched analysis of 22 ARPKD patients with mild-to-moderate CKD in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, compared with a control group of 44 children with other causes of CKD, matched based on glomerular filtration rate, age at study entry, and age at diagnosis.
Results: Children with ARPKD in this cohort had neurocognitive functioning comparable to children with other causes of CKD in domains of intellectual functioning, academic achievement, attention regulation, executive functioning, and behavior. Blood pressure parameters were similar between the two groups; however, ARPKD patients required a significantly greater number of antihypertensive medications to achieve similar BP levels.
Conclusions: ARPKD patients are potentially at risk for neurocognitive dysfunction due to early onset CKD and more severe hypertension. However, this study of children with mild-to-moderate CKD in the CKiD cohort did not demonstrate increased risk in children with ARPKD compared to children with other causes of CKD. Further studies are needed to determine if these findings are applicable to children with more severe manifestations of ARPKD.
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
- Chronic kidney disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health