This article includes a discussion of approaches designed to determine neuroanatomic localization through the use of physical examination, electrophysiologic and neuroradiographic studies, and neuropathologic evaluations. The author reviews the anatomy, function, and biochemistry of frontal-subcortical circuits. Inferred and direct evidence that supports a disorder of frontal-subcortical circuits in Tourette syndrome is presented. Studies investigating specific neurotransmitters are reviewed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology